Best Fertility Centre – Dr. Swapna Naik

Therapeutic Insemination by Donor (TID) is a widely used assisted reproductive technology that helps individuals and couples achieve pregnancy when male infertility or other barriers to natural conception are present. This technique involves the insertion of donor sperm into a woman’s reproductive tract, typically through intrauterine insemination (IUI). TID is a valuable option for many, including those facing male infertility, single women, and same-sex female couples.

Understanding TID

Definition and Process: Therapeutic Insemination by Donor is a medical procedure where sperm from a donor is used to fertilize an egg. The process begins with the selection of a suitable sperm donor, often through a sperm bank that screens for various genetic, medical, and physical traits to ensure a healthy match. The donor sperm is then thawed and prepared in a laboratory.


  1. Cycle Monitoring: The recipient’s menstrual cycle is monitored to determine the optimal time for insemination. This can involve tracking ovulation through hormonal assays, ultrasounds, and physical signs.
  2. Sperm Preparation: Donor sperm, which is frozen and stored in sperm banks, is thawed and washed to concentrate the most motile sperm.
  3. Insemination: The prepared sperm is introduced into the woman’s uterus using a thin catheter during ovulation. This procedure is generally painless and performed in a clinical setting.

Indications for TID

Male Infertility:

  • Azoospermia: Absence of sperm in ejaculate.
  • Severe Oligospermia: Extremely low sperm count.
  • Ejaculatory Dysfunction: Inability to ejaculate sperm naturally.
  • Genetic Disorders: Presence of inheritable genetic conditions.

Other Indications:

  • Single Women: Those who wish to conceive without a male partner.
  • Same-Sex Female Couples: Couples where both partners are female and wish to have a biological child.
  • Risk of Genetic Diseases: Couples opting for TID to avoid transmitting genetic disorders present in the male partner.

Selection of Donors

Screening and Matching: Donors undergo rigorous screening to ensure they are free from genetic disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other medical conditions. Psychological evaluations are also common to ensure donors understand the implications of their donation.

Anonymous vs. Known Donors:

    • Anonymous Donors: Most common, with the donor and recipient having no identifying information about each other.
    • Known Donors: A relative, friend, or acquaintance of the recipient, chosen for personal reasons.

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Ethical Issues:

      • Anonymity and Privacy: Balancing the privacy of the donor and the child’s right to know their genetic origins.
      • Informed Consent: Ensuring all parties understand the procedure, potential outcomes, and legal implications.

Legal Considerations:

      • Parental Rights: Laws vary by country and region, but typically, donors relinquish all parental rights, and the recipient(s) are the legal parents.
      • Birth Certificates: Legal parents’ names are recorded, with no mention of the donor.

Psychological and Social Implications

Recipient Considerations:

      • Emotional Impact: Recipients may experience a range of emotions from joy to anxiety about the donor’s genetic contribution.
      • Counseling: Pre- and post-procedure counseling is recommended to help recipients process their feelings and prepare for parenthood.

Child’s Perspective:

      • Identity and Origin: As donor-conceived children grow, they may have questions about their biological origins. Open and honest communication is encouraged.
      • Disclosure: Families must decide if and when to tell the child about their conception story.

Success Rates and Challenges

Success Rates:

      • Varies by Age: Success rates decline with the woman’s age, with higher rates in younger women.
      • Procedure Cycles: Multiple cycles may be needed for a successful pregnancy.


      • Emotional Stress: The process can be emotionally taxing for recipients.
      • Financial Costs: TID can be expensive, with costs varying by clinic and geographic location.


Therapeutic Insemination by Donor is a crucial option in reproductive medicine, offering hope to those unable to conceive naturally. Its success hinges on careful donor selection, thorough medical and psychological preparation, and an understanding of the ethical and legal landscape. With proper support and guidance, TID can be a fulfilling path to parenthood.

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